Scholarly Readings

Baronov, D. (2012). Conceptual foundations of social research methods. Boulder: Paradigm.

Boulet, G. (2012). Rapid eLearning: Building a house without an architect. ELearn, 2012(2), 5. doi:10.1145/2129230.2145884 

In this article Boulet describes rapid e-learning as just transforming normally used material into a web deliverable format. He explains why that is bad and why it is used. The method is will not work without e-learning professionals to develop the content with pedagogical best practices in mind.

Callejo Perez, D. M., Fain, S. M., & Slater, J. J. (2004). The erosion of the public space. In Pedagogy of place: Seeing space as cultural education (Vol. 263, Counterpoints, pp. 35-51). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Chen, C. (2011). Transforming online professional development: The design and implementation of the project-based learning management system (PBLMs) for in-service teachers. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(1), E5-E8. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01143.x 

The movement for technology integration was expressed to be slow in this article but was deemed due to the superficial professional development. The ways teachers are trained is challenged. Thought there is support in schools to push technology and teachers are taught how to use it, they are not trained in best pedagogical practices according to Chen. This serves as a resource in challenging the ways in which teachers are trained.

Comer, D. R., & Lenaghan, J. A. (2013). Enhancing discussions in the asynchronous online classroom: The lack of face-to-face interaction does not lessen the lesson. Journal of Management Education, 37(2), 261-294. doi:10.1177/1052562912442384 

This article provides a guideline for how to effectively incorporate asynchronous online discussion into virtual curricula. They offer evidence that online asynchronous discussions facilitate students’ learning and may be more inclusive than face-to-face discussions for some students. This is an article that helps connect engagement with asynchronous discussions to facilitate "value added" comments from students.

Crotty, M. (1998). Constructionism: The making of meaning. In The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process (pp. 42-65). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Davies, J., & Graff, M. (2005). Performance in e-learning: Online participation and student grades. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(4), 657-663. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2005.00542.x

Dyson, M. C., & Barreto Campello, S. (2003). Evaluating virtual learning environments: What are we measuring? Electronic Journal of E-Learning,, 1(1), 11-20. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from

Ekanayake, S. Y., & Wishart, J. (2014). Integrating mobile phones into teaching and learning: A case study of teacher training through professional development workshops. British Journal of Educational Technology, N/a-N/a. doi:10.1111/bjet.12131 

A 3-day professional development workshop was held in Sri Lanka to teach science educators the ways to incorporate the use of mobile devices in education. Teachers were supported in recognizing the potential of mobile phones in education. This training offered a new attitude toward phones in the classroom. That attitude had an effect on learning.

Fioriello, P. (2011). The technology gap in education. Membership, Policy, and Professional Development for Educators – ASCD. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from 

Fioriello writes of the need for professional development to better incorporate technology in the classroom. Working together with students was what she describes as a great way to accomplish this. This idea fits the mold of an alternate professional development idea for my research.

Fox, J. (2008). Your child's strengths: Discover them, develop them, use them. New York: Viking.

Freire, P. (1970). Chapter 2. In Pedagogy of the oppressed (p. 253). New York, NY: Herder and Herder.

Garrison, D., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 95-105. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2004.02.001

Gerber, S. (2007). Designing a Learning Curriculum and Technology's Role in It. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(5), 461-478. Retrieved July 11, 2014, from 

This paper presents a case study of the design and implementation of a master's level research course. Factors that defined the curriculum design problem included the subject matter, a view of learning as a change in identity, and the role of technology in curriculum design. The paper made connections between user-centered technology design and socially constructed views of technology with socially constructed views of learning.

Green, E. (2014). Building a better teacher: How teaching works (and how to teach it to everyone). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

Harrison, C. (1994). The role of learning technology In planning change In curriculum delivery and design. Research in Learning Technology, 2(1). doi:10.3402/rlt.v2i1.9486

[Introduction]. (2008). In S. Aronowitz (Author), Against schooling: For an education that matters (p. Xii). Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2011). The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119-132. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00387.x 

This paper describes a semester-long experimental study to determine if using Twitter for educationally relevant purposes can impact college student engagement and grades. This study showed the increase in engagement in learning from both students and faculty. Students showed higher semester grades. Student engagement with the incorporation of relevant technology proves to impact learning outcomes positively.

Kincheloe, J. (2004). Critical pedagogy and cognition. In Critical pedagogy primer (1st ed., pp. 115-137). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Lawless, K. A., & Pellegrino, J. W. (2007). Professional Development in Integrating Technology Into Teaching and Learning: Knowns, Unknowns, and Ways to Pursue Better Questions and Answers. Review of Educational Research, 77(4), 575-614. doi:10.3102/0034654307309921 

This is a focus on understanding what we need to know to be effective at integrating technology in education. They speak of a need to move to a more systematic study of how technology integration occurs within our schools, what increases its adoption by teachers, and the long-term impacts that these investments have on both teachers and students. this is mostly focused on how know what effective practices are which can lead to better Professional development.

Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2011). Life Satisfaction and Student Engagement in Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249-262. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9517-6

Luckin, R., Garnett, F., Coultas, J., & Duboulay, B. (2006). How do we know if e-learning is effective? In Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006 (pp. 217-221). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Aace.

Luckin, R., Garnett, F., Coultas, J. & du Boulay, B. (2006). How do we know if e-learning is effective?. In T. Reeves & S. Yamashita (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006 (pp. 217-221). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Means, B., Bakia, M., & Murphy, R. (2014). Learning online: What research tells us about whether, when and how. New York, NY: Routledge.

Patton, M. Q. (2012). Essentials of utilization-focused evaluation. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.

Pitler, H. (2007). Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 

This book focuses on successful integration of technology in the classroom with special attention to instructional practices. Pitler outlines the most appropriate technology applications and resources for his nine categories of effective instructional strategies. There is a comprehensive outline guiding practitioners to best practices while implementing technology in the classroom.

Rodriguez, G., & Knuth, R. (2000). Critical Issue: Providing Professional Development for Effective Technology Use. Retrieved July 31, 2014.

Roschelle, J., Shechtman, N., Tatar, D., Hegedus, S., Hopkins, B., Empson, S., . . . Gallagher, L. P. (2010). Integration of Technology, Curriculum, and Professional Development for Advancing Middle School Mathematics: Three Large-Scale Studies. American Educational Research Journal, 47(4), 833-878. doi:10.3102/0002831210367426 

The authors present three studies (two randomized controlled experiments and one embedded quasi-experiment) designed to evaluate the impact of replacement units targeting student learning of advanced middle school mathematics. Consistent gains support the conclusion that SimCalc, a mathematics software, is effective in enabling a wide variety of teachers in a diversity of settings to extend student learning to more advanced mathematics. This study helps show the way properly incorporating technology can improve student outcomes.

Schaffhauser, D. (2011). Professional development just-in-time and one-on-one. The Journal--Transforming Education through Technology, 1-4. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from

Smith, C., Hofer, J., Gillespie, M., Solomon, M., & Rowe, K. (2003). How teachers change: A study of professional development in adult education (Rep. No. 25). Cambridge, MA: NCSALL. doi: 

This was a study of the ways teachers develop new strategies and habits. Needs were met with professional development opportunities. The most effective strategies were mentor groups and professional collaboration. This is a deep look at how professional development can be used to create the greatest amount of change in educators.

Smith, J. A., & Sivo, S. A. (2011). Predicting continued use of online teacher professional development and the influence of social presence and sociability. British Journal of Educational Technology, No-No. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01223.x

Stein, S. J., Shephard, K., & Harris, I. (2011). Conceptions of e-learning and professional development for e-learning held by tertiary educators in New Zealand. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(1), 145-165. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00997.x 

A phenomenographic research approach was used to gather the expressed experiences of e-learning and professional development for e-learning held by teachers and support staff from institutions across New Zealand. In this report, the authors discuss the conceptions, and show how they are interrelated through outcome space. Implications for the professional development of tertiary teachers and teaching support staff are outlined.

Sun, P., Finger, G., & Liu, Z. (2014). Mapping the Evolution of eLearning from 1977–2005 to Inform Understandings of eLearning Historical Trends. Education Sciences, 4(1), 155-171. doi:10.3390/educsci4010155

Unrein, J. (2012). Rapid Power Tools: The top performers of eLearning authoring software. ELearn, 2012(5), 5. doi:10.1145/2207270.2221186 

Rapid power tools, the tools that are easy to use and create custom learning experiences, are used to author e-learning according to Unrein. Rapid power tools facilitate the development of interactivity by allowing a full range of events that can happen in response to a learner's inputs. These tools, with proper pedagogical practice, can create a learning environment that suits everyone. The author describes a few and explains how to know which tool to use.

Webster, N. (n.d.). Typescript, San Diego State University. Retrieved from

Wilson, A. (2011). Effective professional development for e-learning: What do the managers think? British Journal of Educational Technology, No-No. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01248.x

This paper discusses the types of professional development made available at tertiary institutions for staff new to e-learning. It dives into what e-learning managers feel is the most effective professional development format. This paper also analyses why the e-learning managers feel this format is the most effective. This is a great article connecting the attitudes and perceptions of educators towards professional development.

Wood, L. N., Vu, T., Bower, M., Brown, N., Skalicky, J., Donovan, D., . . . Bloom, W. (2011). Professional development for teaching in higher education. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 42(7), 997-1009. doi:10.1080/0020739X.2011.608864 

This article recognizes the lack of focus on math and science in professional development opportunities at the higher level. The authors express the power in professional development and the impact it has on learning outcomes. The study focuses on where the need for the professional development exists.

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